Endangered Language Alliance
A branch of the Tibeto-Burman language family, Tibetic languages are spoken widely among peoples of the traditional Tibetan cultural sphere in today’s China, Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bhutan — and, increasingly, around the world. Recent research has shown Tibetan languages to be much more diverse than was previously thought and many “dialects” to be mutually unintelligible. This diversity is likely to be due to the Himalaya creating barriers between groups of Tibetic speakers as well as language contact with neighboring languages, especially Bodish, Qiangic and rGyalrongic languages on certain languages of Tibetic.
Almost all Tibetan speakers recognize and make use of the Tibetan alphabet, in which both the classic and modern texts of Tibetan Buddhism and Tibetan literature are written. This writing system is also utilized by speakers of Tibetan languages that do not have a writing system. The Wylie system is the standard way of rendering the Tibetan alphabet into the Roman alphabet.
Torunadre (2014) has compiled a list of Tibetic languages by country:
China: Ü-Tsang, Khams, Hor, Amdo, Kyirong, Zhongu, Khalong, gSerpa, Khöpokhok, Palkyi [Pashi]/Chos-rje, Sharkhok, Thewo, Chone, Drugchu, Baima.
Pakistan: Balti (northern Pakistan).
India: Purik, Ladakhi, Zangskari, Spiti, Lahuli or Gharsha, Khunu, Jad or Dzad, Drengjong often locally called Lhoke.
Nepal: Humla, Mugu, Dolpo, Lo-ke or Mustang, Nubri, Tsum, Langtang, Yolmo, Gyalsumdo, Jirel, Sherpa also locally called Sharwi Tamnye, Kagate also called Shupa, Lhomi, Walung and Tokpe Gola.
Bhutan: Dzongkha, Tsamang or Chocha-ngacha, Lakha also called Tshangkha, Dur Brokkat also called Bjokha in Dzongkha, Mera Sakteng Brokpa-ke.
The majority of Tibetic languages have under 10,000 speakers, and for many languages there is no accurate estimate of exactly how many fluent speakers remain. In the growing new Tibetan diaspora, many are assimilating to the national languages of the countries in which they reside or have switched to Standard Tibetan, or a related variety spoken widely in the diaspora.
For a look at the vast linguistics literature on Tibetan and related languages, see the Glottolog entry for Tibetic (Tibetan).
The phonology of the Tibetic languages shows considerable variation, but there are regular reflexives to Classical Tibetan in all languages, such as the change discussed in Tournadre (2014) from the consonant cluster /lt/ of Classical Literary Tibetan to the modern Tibetic languages:
LTA ‘look at’ > /lta/ (Ladakhi, Balti), /rta/ (“archaic Amdo”) or /hta/ (“innovative Amdo”), /tā/ (Ü,Tsang, Khams), /lhā/ (Sherpa).
LTOGS ‘be hungry’ > /ltoks/ (Balti), /rtox/ (archaic Amdo) or /htox/ (innovative Amdo), /tōʔ/ (Ü,Tsang, Khams), /lhōʔ/ (Sherpa)
Another constant is that Tibetic languages forbid consonant clusters of /ml/, /pl/, and /ŋr/ in onsets whereas Bodish languages allow these. Tibetic languages are typically tonal, but there are exceptions. An aspirated stop series is common.
“The Comparative Dictionary of Tibetan Dialects” (Bielmeier et al. in preparation) is expected to showcase the diversity of Tibetic, sometimes cited as being comparable to the Romance languages.
Tibetic languages do not share the characteristic of verb agreement with some Tibeto-Burman languages. Auxiliary verbs and nominalized verb forms are used to express verb tense-aspect. Evidential and epistemic markers appear suffixed onto verbs in the majority of Tibetic languages.
While Classical Tibetan has 10 nominal case markers, modern Tibetic languages have very few, with most containing only the ergative, absolutive, genitive, and dative case.