The Digital NYC Language Map is Live!


It’s been a decade since we first began documenting the languages of NYC, the most linguistically diverse city in the world. Today we can finally share much more of what we’ve learned from thousands of conversations with speakers, community leaders, and so many others.

The free, interactive, digital version of Languages of New York City makes public for the first time all the data behind the print map, which was widely covered when it was released in 2019. The need has only grown since, with the Covid-19 pandemic hitting multilingual immigrant neighborhoods hardest. The map builds on over a decade of linguistic research in collaboration with the city’s least visible communities to include:

  • Info on hundreds of Indigenous, minority, and endangered languages whose presence in NYC and the US has not previously been recognized or studied
  • Visual representation of linguistic diversity across the metropolitan area based on significant sites, in- cluding parts of Queens, Brooklyn, the Bronx among the most diverse neighborhoods anywhere
  • Analysis of the regions, countries, language families, and other group to which NYC languages belong, revealing changing dynamics of immigration and language e.g. 38% of the city’s languages are from Asia (highest of any continent), dozens are Indigenous to the Americas
  • Comparison with the latest Census data, broadly accurate for only the ~60 largest languages, including the best available interface for viewing the data by census tract and PUMA
  • Hundreds of unique stories, including recordings, about speakers and communities in/around NYC

Check it out now — and please help spread the word! Send us your feedback. Suggest communities we might be missing. Get in touch if you’d like to advance urban language mapping in your city.

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2020 – a year of languages

It was supposed to be our 10th anniversary, but this wasn’t a year for celebration. It was a year of doing what we could to continue our work, despite limitations. For many of the communities we work with, it was a year of survival and bravery in the face of crisis.

In January, we worked with the remarkable Comunidades Indigenas en Liderazgo (CIELO) and La Red de Pueblos Transnacionales to put together the weekend-long Taller para Interpretes Indígenas, the first-ever Workshop for Indigenous Interpreters in New York. February brought International Mother Language Day, which we celebrated in style with the NYC Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs, launching a series of videos in languages rarely or never before officially represented. Our last public event, in early March, was an exciting exchange between policymakers, map afficionados, historians (and of course a linguist!) at the New York Public Library. Just a week later, we shut down the office and started working remotely.

By April, the city’s multilingual immigrant neighborhoods had become the global epicenter of the pandemic — a crisis caused not only by deep-seated social and economic inequalities, but by failures of language access and translation. Continuing over the course of May and into the summer, we evolved a two-part response: supporting mutual aid efforts especially in the city’s Indigenous communities and commissioning diaries of pandemic lifefrom collaborators in a dozen different language groups, both to document the impact and to get funds directly to the people most impacted by joblessness and hunger. In June, we continued our major push to spread the word about the 2020 Census, with videos we recorded and circulated in languages covered nowhere else. Our NYC coalition made possible an impressive self-response rate, in the face of enormous obstacles.

July was the (virtual) launch of Ladino New York, a small, entirely original video series about Sephardic history in New York, three years in the making. In August, continuing a string of virtual events and classes, we worked with the NYC Department of Health on a unique workshop about language access for Indigenous New Yorkers during the ongoing health emergency, in Spanish with simultaneous translation in varieties of Mixtec, K’iche’, Kichwa, and English. In September, we were grateful for a restorative residency on Governors Island in New York Harbor, a quiet stay modified due to Covid from a packed original schedule.

In October, we compiled recommendations with a Language Access Policy working group made up completely of Indigenous New Yorkers and assisted with several projects around Native American digital language development. Much of November was devoted to writing, including forthcoming articles on Pamiri and Italian languages in diaspora, as well as on the invisibilization of Indigenous languages. This December we’ve been making a big push, building on work all year long to get our digital language map of New York City ready to launch in 2021.

Those are just a few of the highlights. To learn more about everything we’re doing, from in-depth work on particular languages to bigger questions about linguistic diversity, visit our website or our Youtube channel, featuring hundreds of stories in languages from all over the world. Or get in touch!

For 2021, we have big plans, from achive-building to children’s books to a whole new slate of exhibits and events when things reopen. Fingers crossed: maybe we can even celebrate, belatedly, 10 (now almost 11!) years of ELA. We salute all of you, and especially our immigrant and indigenous collaborators, for having persevered during a seemingly endless period of pain and persecution. We desperately look forward to a fresh start in the new year. Hope to see you then!

As always, we’re grateful for your support. Happy Holidays!

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Classes, Fieldwork, and More (Virtually!)

ELA’s work is all about what happens when communities, linguists, artists, students, and language lovers come together — usually in person, in a room, at a community center, at a festival, up a mountain or on a Brooklyn street corner… But in the meantime a lot of amazing work is going on virtually, opening up new possibilities.

  • Language classes, starting next week on Zoom, from long-time Lunaape language teacher Karen Mosko (see below). Our friends at Quechua Collective of New York have also been busy with classes online!
  • Language documentation: ELA volunteer Shweta Akolkar and long-time collaborator Uttam Singha (pictured above) continue to work on Bishnupriya Manipuri, Uttam’s language. ELA Co-Director Ross Perlin and veteran partner Rasmina Gurung continue to work in detail on Seke, Rasmina’s language.
  • Indigenous language collaborations: We have been working with Indigenous New Yorkers on Language Access Policy recommendations for the NYC DOHMH that calls for improved interpretation and outreach. At the end of the summer, we helped our friends at the NYC DOHMH put together an event focused on COVID in NYC’s Indigenous communities— with simultaneous translation in 3 Indigenous languages, a first for the agency and the city. ELA has also been supporting multiple Indigenous language projects through fiscal sponsorship (more on those soon).

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Introducing Ladino New York

Varieties of what became Judeo-Spanish (now widely known as Ladino) were once spoken by Sephardim, the Jews of Spain — approximately 100,000-175,000 of whom were expelled from Spain in 1492. While some went to Portugal and others to Morocco, the vast majority went to the Ottoman Empire, maintaining and developing their distinctive language for over 500 years.

By the early 20th century, with the arrival of tens of thousands of speakers from cities such as Salonica, Istanbul, and Izmir, New York had become one of the language’s global centers. Other Ladino-speaking communities developed elsewhere in the US, including Seattle and Los Angeles, though younger generations switched to English.

Endangered everywhere today, Ladino nonetheless has a substantial legacy and a vital presence in New York. It was the language of neighborhoods from Lower East Side to the Bronx to the New Lots area of Brooklyn, playing a significant role in daily life and at times in the numerous Sephardic synagogues in those areas. The city has also been home to large-scale Ladino-language journalism (most famously, La Vara), a theater troupe (The Ladino Players), and Ladino classes. Today, annual events like the Celebration of Judeo-Spanish in New York and the International Ladino Day are bringing together speakers, students, and a growing number of Sephardim and non-Sephardim interested in the language.

In 12 episodes/interviews totaling around 4 hours, ELA’s Ladino New York project, part of a larger Jewish Languages inititive, tells the stories of those speak the language or remember the language and its major role in the history and future of Jewish New York.

A full list of all the episodes is here on YouTube — enjoy and spread the word!

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A New Residency on Governors Island

For the next few months, the Endangered Language Alliance will be hosting a small residency program on Governors Island, the exciting new arts and culture hub in the middle of New York Harbor, giving space to linguists, language activists, and other creators doing related work at a challenging time. Residents will work on ongoing projects documenting and support linguistic diversity in the city, surrounded by the “Mother Tongues” portraits of endangered language speakers by photographer Yuri Marder, previously exhibited at the Queens Museum and the City Lore Gallery. We hope to be back in the future with public events when it’s safe!

If you’re in need of a unique but barebones space for language-related work or simply want to learn more, drop us a line!

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Virtual Events

ELA is still working remotely and has suspended all in-person events, including language classes, for the time being — but see below for past and upcoming events.

July 12: ELA researcher Nawang Gurung at the Columbia’s Weatherhead Institute on “Tibetan and Himalayan Communities in a Covid-19 World

July 17: ELA collaborator Sienna Craig spoke at the “2020 International Tibetan Medicine Conference on COVID-19 in China”, broadcasting to 4500 Tibetan viewers

July 26, 6 pm: Listen live to “Language at a Distance”, a new ELA piece produced with Nicole Galpern and Natalie Galpern on whistling languages, drum languages, and all the many ways people have communicated when they’re not together, on Montez Press Radio

July 30, 7 pm: ELA w/the Queens Council on the Arts celebrating a new artwork about the multilingualism of Queens

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Reopening — to a New Reality

Today officially marks NYC’s reopening, but the extraordinary events of the past few weeks, driven by mourning and anger and hope in the wake of George Floyd’s killing, have already brought the city back to life. At ELA, we are continuing to do what we can to record and reverberate the voices of speakers and communities struggling for justice. We are still working from home, with all events suspended, but hope to begin a gradual, safe reopening soon.

As many from the heart of the Black Lives Matter movement have been emphasizing, standing up and being counted in the 2020 Census, as soon as possible, is critical. In new ELA videos, Milton (from NYC’s Garifuna community) and Segundo (from NYC’s Kichwa community) explain why filling out the census is the one of the simplest but also most important things people can do for their communities. 

We are still working from home, with all events suspended, but hope to begin a gradual, safe reopening soon. Please keep an eye on our website, on our Facebook page, and future newsletters for any updates. Stay safe!

ELA has been working towards the goal of a complete count in the 2020 Census. Time after time, immigrant, minority, and Indigenous communities in America’s cities have been undercounted in all official statistics, with disastrous results that the current crisis is again making clear.

Since February, we’ve made a total of 17 video and 3 audio messages with NYC speakers of over a dozen language varieties and we’re continuing to spread the word and assist with NYC’s large-scale push to make sure all New Yorkers are counted. ELA videos include 6 major Indigenous languages of Latin America:

  • Garifuna (Honduras, Belize, Guatemala)
  • K’iche (Guatemala)
  • Kichwa (Ecuador – multiple dialects)
  • Mixtec (Mexico – multiple dialects)
  • Quechua (Peru)
  • Tlapanec (Mexico)

…as well as the following 4 major under-represented Asian languages: 

  • Indonesian
  • Nepali
  • Tajik
  • Tibetan

The timeline for the census is being extended. If you haven’t already, go to (if possible using the Census ID on the card you were mailed) and fill it out now! Over a trillion dollars in resources depends on it.

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Diaries from the Epicenter: Immigrant New Yorkers Talk About COVID-19

Nearly every day since April, 14 New Yorkers from diverse backgrounds speaking 10 different Himalayan and Indigenous Latin American languages have been recording diaries of their experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic at the epicenter of the epicenter: NYC’s multilingual immigrant neighborhoods. Now hundreds of these recordings are freely available via Soundcloud, with English summaries for over half (when viewed on a computer).

Explore and get to know the Himalayan New Yorkers who are recording diaries: an expectant mother, a nurse battling the virus herself, an amchi (Tibetan doctor) trying to help his patients, a worried parent, and others. Listen to language varieties like Dzongkha (the national language of Bhutan), Dolpo (from a remote Himalayan valley in Nepal), and Amdo Tibetan (with its long nomadic pastoralist tradition). This playlist contains the most recently uploaded entries for each diarist, but you can click on any individual diarist to see all of their entries, for instance Yeshi’s 54 entries.

Another set of diaries look at the experiences of Indigenous Latin American New Yorkers — speakers of Mixtec, Tlapanec, and K’iche, including essential workers and those involved in mutual aid efforts. There are corresponding Spanish audio summaries by the speakers themselves for most of the Indigenous entries.

Free and open to all for non-commercial use, the “New York COVID-19” diaries form just one part of an emerging project which also includes ELA’s supporting role in direct aid; individual interviews with community leaders; multilingual materials related to the pandemic and community responses; and a separate but closely related effort to map the city’s languages. We’re doing this for community members, first responders, scholars, policymakers, and the general public — not just to grapple what is happening right now, but to increase understanding in the likely event of future public health and socioeconomic crises.

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The Impact of COVID-19 on New York City’s Multilingual Immigrant Communities

Since late March, New York City has been the global epicenter of the COVID-19/coronavirus pandemic, with more than 170,000 confirmed cases and over 18,000 confirmed deaths as of early May. Nearly every New Yorker has been affected, but the effects have not been evenly distributed. While there is emerging evidence in city data of serious disparities by race,  by race, it is also becoming clear, as this map indicates, that multilingual immigrant communities have been among the hardest hit.

This map combines the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases per 1,000 people by ZIP Code (as of May 5) from the NYC Department of Health with the Endangered Language Alliance’s recently released NYC Language Map, which emphasizes linguistic diversity by representing over 600 languages at approximately 1000 significant sites across the city, based on years of collaboration and data-gathering with the city’s language communities. The total number of COVID-19 tests administered per capita by ZIP Code, using the same city dataset, was also mapped for reference.

Despite significant nuances and challenges — such as how to represent languages (especially the more widely-spoken) at individual locations, major variation in population per ZIP Code, different levels of testing for COVID-19 — some overall patterns are clear:

  • The Central Queens neighborhoods of Corona, Elmhurst, and Jackson Heights, where hundreds of minority and Indigenous languages are spoken from across Latin America and Asia, has become the “epicenter of the epicenter”, with approximately 11,000 cases and hundreds of fatalities.
  • Major immigrant neighborhoods that are home to speakers of smaller languages from across Latin America, the Caribbean, and West Africa are bearing the brunt of the outbreak in Harlem, the Bronx, Southeast Queens, and Staten Island, with high mortality rates.
  • The most linguistically diverse stretch of neighborhoods in Brooklyn, from Borough Park to Canarsie and including major Jewish, Caribbean, and post-Soviet diaspora communities, has the highest number of cases in the borough.

These patterns are confirmed in stories from the communities themselves. Immigrant workers on the frontlines, such as essential care workers, food workers, and transit workers are at greater risk. Disparities around housing, income, health, and immigration status also play a role. A lack of timely, widely disseminated information in community languages, despite efforts, is another critical factor. Language is just one important indicator — note, for example, the affluent multilingual cluster around Manhattan’s United Nations with relatively fewer cases.

New York City’s multilingual immigrant communities are organizing, from mutual aid among Brooklyn’s Mayan community to a Queens-based Nepali network. The COVID-19 Immigrant Emergency Relief Program announced on April 16 is another important step, but more is needed.

These map were produced by the Mapping Linguistic Diversity partnership, bringing together the Endangered Language Alliance and researchers at the University of British Columbia, with support from the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies. Media contact:

Click here to download the map in PDF format.

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